From toThomas Jefferson operated as the informal leader of what would become the nation's first opposition political party, the Democratic-Republicans. This party vocally challenged Hamilton's political views. When Washington declined to run for a third term inJefferson allowed his name to be nominated by a caucus of Democratic-Republican leaders who were against John Adams's run for the presidency. Adams served as vice president under Washington.
Background[ edit ] The United States Constitution did not originally define who was eligible to vote, allowing each state to determine who was eligible.
In the early history of the U. Women could vote in New Jersey until provided they could meet the property requirement and in some local jurisdictions in other northern states.
Non-white Americans could also vote in these jurisdictions, provided they could meet the property requirement. Bywhite men were allowed to vote in all states regardless of property ownership, although requirements for paying tax remained in five states.
Four of the fifteen post-Civil War constitutional amendments were ratified to extend voting rights to different groups of citizens. These extensions state that voting rights cannot be denied or abridged based on the following: These reforms in the 19th and 20th centuries extended the franchise to non-whites, those who do not own property, women, and those 18—21 years old.
Since the "right to vote" is not explicitly stated in the U. Constitution except in the above referenced amendments, and only in reference to the fact that the franchise cannot be denied or abridged based solely on the aforementioned qualifications, the "right to vote" is perhaps better understood, in layman's terms, as only prohibiting certain forms of legal discrimination in establishing qualifications for suffrage.
States may deny the "right to vote" for other reasons. For example, many states require eligible citizens to register to vote a set number of days prior to the election in order to vote.
More controversial restrictions include those laws that prohibit convicted felons from votingeven those who have served their sentences. Another example, seen in Bush v.
Goreare disputes as to what rules should apply in counting or recounting ballots. For example, upon death or resignation of a legislator, the state may allow the affiliated political party to choose a replacement to hold office until the next scheduled election.
Such an appointment is often affirmed by the governor. Milestones of national franchise changes[ edit ] Further information: Timeline of voting rights in the United States The Constitution grants the states the power to set voting requirements. The Naturalization Act of allows white men born outside of the United States to become citizens with the right to vote.
Free black males lose the right to vote in several Northern states including in Pennsylvania and in New Jersey. Abolition of property qualifications for white men, from Kentucky to North Carolina during the periods of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy.
However, tax-paying qualifications remained in five states in — Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Delaware and North Carolina. They survived in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island until the 20th century. Citizenship is guaranteed to all persons born or naturalized in the United States by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitutionsetting the stage for future expansions to voting rights.
Non-white men and freed male slaves are guaranteed the right to vote by the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era began soon after.
Southern states suppressed the voting rights of black and poor white voters through Jim Crow Laws.
During this period, the Supreme Court generally upheld state efforts to discriminate against racial minorities; only later in the 20th century were these laws ruled unconstitutional.
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