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Instead it is an explanation of visual structure, of the ways in which certain visual elements have been arranged and function within a composition. Strictly speaking, subject is not considered and neither is historical or cultural context. The purest formal analysis is limited to what the viewer sees.
Because it explains how the eye is led through a work, this kind of description provides a solid foundation for other types of analysis. It is always a useful exercise, even when it is not intended as an end in itself.
The British art critic Roger Fry played an important role in developing the language of formal analysis we use in English today.
Inspired by modern art, Fry set out to escape the interpretative writing of Victorians like Ruskin. He wanted to describe what the viewer saw, independent of the subject of the work or its emotional impact. Relying in part upon late 19th- and early 20th-century studies of visual perception, Fry hoped to bring scientific rigor to the analysis of art.
Even more important were his studies as a painter, which made him especially aware of the importance of how things had been made. One of the most influential systems was created by the 17th-century French Academician Roger de Piles His book, The Principles of Painting, became very popular throughout Europe and appeared in many languages.
Color, both as establishing a general key and as setting up a relationship of parts; line, both as creating a sense of structure and as embodying movement and character; light and dark, which created expressive forms and patterns at the same time as it suggested the character of volumes through light and shade; the sense of volume itself and what might be called mass as contrasted with space; and the concept of plane, which was necessary in discussing the organization of space, both in depth and in a two-dimensional pattern.
Towering over all these individual elements was the composition, how part related to part and to whole: A Study of His Development. Fry made his argument through careful study of individual paintings, many in private collections and almost all of them unfamiliar to his readers.
Although the book included reproductions of the works, they were small black-and-white illustrations, murky in tone and detail, which conveyed only the most approximate idea of the pictures. Nonetheless, he set out to make his case with words.
The lengthy analysis of the picture begins with a description of the application of paint. This was, Fry felt, the necessary place of beginning because all that we see and feel ultimately comes from paint applied to a surface. After a digression about how other artists handled paint, Fry returned to Still-life with Compotier.
These strokes are strictly parallel, almost entirely rectilinear, and slant from right to left as they descend.
And this direction of the brush strokes is carried through without regard to the contours of the objects. The size of the strokes, their shape, the direction they take on the canvas, and how they relate to the forms they create are all explained.
Already the painting seems very specific. On the other hand, the reader has not been given the most basic facts about what the picture represents.
For Fry, that information only came after everything else, if it was mentioned at all. Each form seems to have a surprising amplitude, to permit of our apprehending it with an ease which surprises us, and yet they admit a free circulation in the surrounding space.
It is above all the main directions given by the rectilinear lines of the napkin and the knife that make us feel so vividly this horizontal extension [of space].
And this horizontal [visually] supports the spherical volumes, which enforce, far more than real apples could, the sense of their density and mass. He continued in a new paragraph: One notes how few the forms are.
How the sphere is repeated again and again in varied quantities. To this is added the rounded oblong shapes which are repeated in two very distinct quantities in the compotier and the glass. If we add the continually repeated right lines [of the brush strokes] and the frequently repeated but identical forms of the leaves on the wallpaper, we have exhausted this short catalogue.
The variation of quantities of these forms is arranged to give points of clear predominance to the compotier itself to the left, and the larger apples to the right centre.
One divines, in fact, that the forms are held together by some strict harmonic principle almost like that of the canon in Greek architecture, and that it is this that gives its extraordinary repose and equilibrium to the whole design.
We find the traces of this throughout this still-life. He actually draws the contour with his brush, generally in a bluish grey. Naturally the curvature of this line is sharply contrasted with his parallel hatchings, and arrests the eye too much.
He then returns upon it incessantly by repeated hatchings which gradually heap up round the contour to a great thickness. The contour is continually being lost and then recovered. At first sight the volumes and contours declare themselves boldly to the eye.
They are of a surprising simplicity, and are clearly apprehended. But the more one looks the more they elude any precise definition.Fig. 2 - Mountains at various distances. Mountains (a) are 15 miles away; mountains (b) are 40 miles away, and mountains (c) are 25 miles away.
Notice how the most distant mountains are the lightest in apparent color. Formal Analysis. Formal analysis is a specific type of visual description. Unlike ekphrasis, it is not meant to evoke the work in the reader’s mind. ATOMS for atomic-structure display.
ATOMS is a program for drawing all types of atomic structures, including crystals, polymers and molecules. It can make fully "three-dimensional" color drawings using the latest system software, or it can make simple schematic black-and-white drawings for reproduction on a small scale in publications - or virtually anything between these extremes.
The Concept and Teaching of Place-Value Richard Garlikov. An analysis of representative literature concerning the widely recognized ineffective learning of "place-value" by American children arguably also demonstrates a widespread lack of understanding of the concept of place-value among elementary school arithmetic teachers and among researchers themselves.
In computer science, lexical analysis, lexing or tokenization is the process of converting a sequence of characters (such as in a computer program or web page) into a sequence of tokens (strings with an assigned and thus identified meaning).
A program that performs lexical analysis may be termed a lexer, tokenizer, or scanner, though scanner is also a term for the first stage of a lexer. The elements of art are the building blocks of all art.
Every piece of art ever created includes one or more of these elements. Learn about line, color, shape, form, value, space, and texture.