History[ edit ] Not only was Lady Chatterley's Lover banned from importation into Australia inbut a book describing the British trial, The Trial of Lady Chatterley, was also banned in
Galileo viewed these moons as a smaller Copernican system within the Solar system and used them to support Heliocentrism. Galileo began An argument that music movies and books should not be censored telescopic observations in the later part ofand by March was able to publish a small book, The Starry Messenger Sidereus Nunciusdescribing some of his discoveries: Other observations followed, including the phases of Venus and the existence of sunspots.
Galileo's contributions caused difficulties for theologians and natural philosophers of the time, as they contradicted scientific and philosophical ideas based on those of Aristotle and Ptolemy and closely associated with the Catholic Church.
In particular, Galileo's observations of the phases of Venus, which showed it to circle the sun, and the observation of moons orbiting Jupiter, contradicted the geocentric model of Ptolemywhich was backed and accepted by the Roman Catholic Church,   and supported the Copernican model advanced by Galileo.
InGalileo visited the Collegium Romanum in Rome, where the Jesuit astronomers by that time had repeated his observations. Not all of Galileo's claims were completely accepted: Christopher Claviusthe most distinguished astronomer of his age, never was reconciled to the idea of mountains on the Moon, and outside the collegium many still disputed the reality of the observations.
In a letter to Kepler of August Galileo complained that some of the philosophers who opposed his discoveries had refused even to look through a telescope: What do you have to say about the principal philosophers of this academy who are filled with the stubbornness of an asp and do not want to look at either the planets, the moon or the telescope, even though I have freely and deliberately offered them the opportunity a thousand times?
Truly, just as the asp stops its ears, so do these philosophers shut their eyes to the light of truth. Geocentrists who did verify and accept Galileo's findings had an alternative to Ptolemy's model in an alternative geocentric or "geo-heliocentric" model proposed some decades earlier by Tycho Brahe — a model, in which, for example, Venus circled the sun.
Brahe argued that the distance to the stars in the Copernican system would have to be times greater than the distance from the sun to Saturn. Moreover, the only way the stars could be so distant and still appear the sizes they do in the sky would be if even average stars were gigantic — at least as big as the orbit of the earth, and of course vastly larger than the sun refer to article on Tychonic System.
Galileo became involved in a dispute over priority in the discovery of sunspots with Christoph Scheinera Jesuit. This became a bitter lifelong feud. Neither of them, however, was the first to recognise sunspots — the Chinese had already been familiar with them for centuries.
The debate was unfriendly, and Galileo's blunt and sometimes sarcastic style, though not extraordinary in academic debates of the time, made him enemies. During this controversy one of Galileo's friends, the painter Lodovico Cardi da Cigoliinformed him that a group of malicious opponents, which Cigoli subsequently referred to derisively as "the Pigeon league",  was plotting to cause him trouble over the motion of the earth, or anything else that would serve the purpose.
Nevertheless, three years later another priest, Tommaso Caccinidid in fact do precisely that, as described below. Bible argument Further information: Biblical inerrancy In the Catholic world prior to Galileo's conflict with the Church, the majority of educated people subscribed to the Aristotelian geocentric view that the earth was the center of the universe and that all heavenly bodies revolved around the earth,  though Copernican theories were used to reform the calendar in Heliocentrismthe theory that the earth was a planet, which along with all the others revolved around the sun, contradicted both geocentrism and the prevailing theological support of the theory.
One of the first suggestions of heresy that Galileo had to deal with came in from a professor of philosophy, poet and specialist in Greek literature, Cosimo Boscaglia. Boscaglia had talked to Madame [Christina] for a while, and though he conceded all the things you have discovered in the sky, he said that the motion of the earth was incredible and could not be, particularly since Holy Scripture obviously was contrary to such motion.
The exchange having been reported to Galileo by Castelli, Galileo decided to write a letter to Castelli expounding his views on what he considered the most appropriate way of treating scriptural passages which made assertions about natural phenomena. Preaching a sermon in Florence at the end ofhe denounced Galileo, his associates, and mathematicians in general a category that included astronomers.
Lorini and other Dominicans at the Convent of San Marco considered the letter of doubtful orthodoxy, in part because it may have violated the decrees of the Council of Trent: Quoted in Langford, The Roman Inquisition suspected Galileo of violating the decrees of the Council.
Museo Diocesano Tridentino, Trento. Lorini and his colleagues decided to bring Galileo's letter to the attention of the Inquisition. In February Lorini accordingly sent a copy to the Secretary of the Inquisition, Cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondratiwith a covering letter critical of Galileo's supporters: Mark feel that the letter contains many statements which seem presumptuous or suspect, as when it states that the words of Holy Scripture do not mean what they say; that in discussions about natural phenomena the authority of Scripture should rank last Quoted in Langford,  On March 19, Caccini arrived at the Inquisition 's offices in Rome to denounce Galileo for his Copernicanism and various other alleged heresies supposedly being spread by his pupils.
He also heard that Caccini had gone to Rome and suspected him of trying to stir up trouble with Lorini's copy of the letter. By presenting his case there, he hoped to clear his name of any suspicion of heresy, and to persuade the Church authorities not to suppress heliocentric ideas.
In going to Rome Galileo was acting against the advice of friends and allies, and of the Tuscan ambassador to Rome, Piero Guicciardini.
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June Learn how and when to remove this template message Cardinal Robert Bellarmine —who deliberated upon Galileo's writings in —6, and ordered him to refrain from holding, teaching or discussing Copernicanism Cardinal Robert Bellarmineone of the most respected Catholic theologians of the time, was called on to adjudicate the dispute between Galileo and his opponents.
The question of heliocentrism had first been raised with Cardinal Bellarmine, in the case of Paolo Antonio Foscarinia Carmelite father; Foscarini had published a book, Lettera Bellarmine at first expressed the opinion that Copernicus's book would not be banned, but would at most require some editing so as to present the theory purely as a calculating device for " saving the appearances " i.
After some preliminary salutations and acknowledgements, Bellarmine begins by telling Foscarini that it is prudent for him and Galileo to limit themselves to treating heliocentrism as a merely hypothetical phenomenon and not a physically real one.As a result, administrators now have a great deal of leeway in determining what is and isn't acceptable material in school-sponsored publications and events, but only if their school has not established a public forum..
In other words, if the school has an official policy of prior review in place, or can clearly establish a history of prior review, the Hazelwood standard applies and a greater. Yahoo Lifestyle is your source for style, beauty, and wellness, including health, inspiring stories, and the latest fashion trends.
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration--NASA--was established on July 29, Ever since that day, NASA has been at the forefront of efforts to explore outerspace, resulting in the Apollo missions to the moon, the Skylab space-station, and today's space shuttle.
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