One of the recurring themes in philosophy is the idea that the discipline needs to be given a new methodology. Among empiricists this has often meant making it more scientific. From an early date, Russell enunciated this viewpoint, finding in the techniques of… Russell was born in Ravenscroft, the country home of his parents, Lord and Lady Amberley. Inafter a long and distinguished political career in which he served twice as prime ministerLord Russell was ennobled by Queen Victoria, becoming the 1st Earl Russell.
The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false. The third question faces anyone who makes any decisions at all, and even not deciding is itself a decision.
Thus all persons practice philosophy whether they know it or not. Autocosmic Answers What is existing? Reality consists ultimately of matter and energy and their fundamentally lawlike and unwilled relations in space-time.
To exist is to have a causal relationship with the rest of the universe. The universe is the maximal set of circumstances that includes this statement and no subset of which is causally unrelated to the remainder.
Humans do not know why the universe exists or what it is for. The universe operates without supernatural intervention and according to lawlike regularities that can be understood through empirical investigation and without special intuition. Humans have no credible evidence of any supernatural agency or unity.
Humans have no credible evidence that any minds enjoy eternal existence. Knowledge is justified true belief. Truth is logical and parsimonious consistency with evidence and with other truth. Meaning is the context-sensitive connotation ultimately established by relevant denotation and use.
All synthetic propositions including this one can only be known from experience and are subject to doubt. A synthetic statement is propositionally meaningless if it is in principle neither falsifiable nor verifiable.
A mind is any volition al conscious faculty for perception and cognition. Minds and ideas consist ultimately of matter.
Mental states are functional states consisting of causal relations among components for processing information.
Consciousness is awareness of self and environment. Intelligence is the ability to make, test, and apply inductions about perceptions of self and world. There are no forms of reasoning or kinds of knowledge that are in principle inaccessible to regular intelligence.
As autonomous living intellects, we persons value intelligence and life and the autonomy they need to flourish. A person is any intelligen t being with significant volitional control over how it affects other beings.
All persons have the right to life and liberty.MODERN WESTERN PHILOSOPHY. Remarks concerning twelve modern philosophers, from Francis Bacon to Bertrand Russell, and presenting a citizen standpoint involving a concluding discussion of science, one relating to the "against method" controversy associated with Paul Feyerabend.
MODERN WESTERN PHILOSOPHY. Remarks concerning twelve modern philosophers, from Francis Bacon to Bertrand Russell, and presenting a citizen standpoint involving a concluding discussion of science, one relating to the "against method" controversy associated with Paul Feyerabend.
Bertrand Russell: Bertrand Russell, British philosopher and logician, founding figure in the analytic movement in Anglo-American philosophy, and recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature. His contributions to logic, epistemology, and the philosophy of mathematics made him one of the foremost philosophers of the 20th century.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, (born August 27, , Stuttgart, Württemberg [Germany]—died November 14, , Berlin), German philosopher who developed a dialectical scheme that emphasized the progress of history and of ideas from thesis to antithesis and thence to a synthesis..
Hegel was the last of the great philosophical system builders of modern times. Project Gutenberg's The Problems of Philosophy, by Bertrand Russell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
The key to human nature that Marx found in wealth and Freud in sex, Bertrand Russell finds in power. Power, he argues, is man's ultimate goal, and is, in its many guises, the single most important element in the development of any society.