Founding[ edit ] Aerial photo of university in The college was founded as a nonprofit institution in in Prescott. Arizona Southern Baptists felt the need to establish a faith-based institution that would allow local Baptists the opportunity to obtain a bachelor's or master's degree without going east to one of the Baptist colleges in Texas or Oklahoma. After having fewer than 1, students enrolled inthe university had 17, students in the spring of
A small number of the white settlers who followed the Oregon Trail from Independence, Missouri to Oregon City brought bondservants.
Gregory Nokes, describes one enslaved person, Reuben Shipley. And, I was stunned because it had never occurred to me there were slaves in Oregon.
As a schoolboy, and much beyond, I had understood that Oregon had a law against slavery from the earliest days of its provisional government in This was fact; taught in schools; no reason to question.
I was soon to discover there was much more to the slavery story. Bill told me I could read about Reuben Shipley on page of a family genealogy, which I had never read, but my younger brother had.
The white Shipley—my distant ancestor—had promised the black Shipley that if he helped him start his farm in Oregon, he would give him his freedom. A painful choice confronted Reuben Shipley.
In exchange for the prospect of being free, he faced leaving behind his wife and two sons, who belonged to other slaveholders.
But if he decided to remain in Missouri near his family, he would be sold as a slave to another owner. Two other slaves of Robert Shipley, both women, were offered the same choice, but decided to stay close to their families, remaining as slaves.
Reuben Shipley was taken to Oregon, a six-month trip of 2, miles. He never saw them again.
Shipley, who did get his freedom, was by no means alone as a slave brought to Oregon. I was to learn over the next several years that there were as many as 50 slaves who came with early settlers, most of them from Missouri.
Some were released soon after they arrived; others kept much longer. Yes, the number is miniscule compared with theslaves in Missouri inand the four million slaves nationwide.
But a slave is a slave. This prejudice was born of the slave experience and explains the anti-black laws they would soon impose. Opposition to slavery in Oregon was based on economic issues, not moral considerations. These included the first territorial governor inthe first state governor inthe first two U.
Oregon was the only free state admitted into the Union with an exclusion clause against African Americans in its constitution, a clause not repealed until The first, inthreatened, albeit briefly and never enforced, a severe whipping for a free black who refused to leave: They solidly voted no, but solidly voted yes on the exclusion clause.
The Oregon and California delegations walked out of the Democratic convention in Baltimore to join southern delegations in nominating John Breckinridge of Kentucky to run for president against Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas.
Isaac Stevens, the first territorial governor of Washington, managed the Breckinridge-Lane campaign. Not untildid Oregon legislators ratify the Fifteenth Amendment granting voting rights to blacks. Out of all this came my book, Breaking Chains: The Chinese in Hells Canyon. This earlier book told of the long-forgotten massacre of nearly three-dozen immigrant Chinese gold miners, a crime for which no one was ever held accountable.
My research led me to an court case I absolutely knew nothing about and which became the centerpiece of my book.Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and iridis-photo-restoration.com Fifty years ago, the supertanker the SS Torrey Canyon hit rocks off the coast of Cornwall, spilling more than , tonnes of crude oil.
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