If there is no communication, teachers and other support staff cannot know what their co-workers are doing. Head of school cannot receive information inputs and head of department and other team leaders cannot give instructions. Coordination of work is impossible and the organization will collapse for lack of it.
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you. Overview As topics of study, both gender and gender socialization are relatively new areas of interest within sociology, and the social sciences more generally.
The increasing focus on gender introduced as many new ques- tions as it answered. Are our behaviors as males and females determined by our environment — through culture, our interaction with others, our social institutions — or are they determined Gender role socializationessay biology and genetics?
Sociologists admit that the answer to such questions remain elusive. Unfortunately, the distinction between sex and gender is not quite so clear. The confusion stems largely from the varying degrees of emphasis placed on biology and culture in understanding what it means to be male and female.
On one end of the spectrum are those who believe gender is entirely socially constructed, and therefore not grounded in any physiological reality Wharton, On the other end are those who believe the two sexes are a biological fact.
And in the middle is the biosocial perspective, the idea that gender is constructed within limits already estab-lished by our biology. In addition, sociologists often study gender using different frameworks.
Some emphasize gender as a characteristic of the Gender role socializationessay, some as a product of social interactions, and others as a characteristic of social institutions Wharton, Those who are interested in socialization processes, however, usually study gender as a characteristic of the indi-vidual; as such, much of the theoretical work on socialization is drawn from psychology as well as sociology Burn, ; Wharton, Theoretical Approaches to Gender Socialization Several theories that attempt to explain gender socialization — social learning theory, and gender schema theory, for example - fall within the category of learning theories more broadly Wharton, Such theorists understand the processes by which children learn gender appropriate behavior in the same way children learn in general.
Other theories focus on gender and sexuality exclusively. Psychoanalytic theory, for example, emphasizes the unconscious processes involved in developing gender identity. Stockard suggests that all three theories help explain the process of gender socialization, even though evidence for some — as comprehensive, stand-alone, explanatory theories — is lacking.
Or, parents might hug a young girl who cries — the hug serving as a positive reinforcement — thereby increasing the likelihood the girl will cry again in the future. In this way, the theory sug-gests, boys and girls learn which behaviors are expected of them. Social learning theory also suggests that children learn by observing and imitating the behavior of same-sex adults.
First proposed in the s and s, social learning theory has not withstood the test of time. Finally, evidence is mixed with regard to the extent to which parents reinforce male and female children differently. All of which suggests, critics argue, that children are more actively engaged in their socialization than the theory acknowledges.
Gender Schema Theory In response, Sandra Bem introduced a second cognitive theory of gender socialization known as gender schema theory. According to Bem, in cultures where distinctions between men and women are emphasized, children learn to use gender as a way to pro-cess information about the world.
The cognitive structures, or gender schemas, help children organize information, and main-tain a sense of consistency and predictability Stockard, For Bem, two characteristics of gender schemas are particularly noteworthy. And secondly, gender schemas tend to be androcentric; that is, children internalize the message that males and masculinity are the standard or norm, and are more highly valued than females and femininity Wharton, The psy-choanalytic approach was founded by Sigmund Freud, but its application to gender socialization was more fully outlined in the late s by Nancy Chodorow.
For Chodorow, the key factor in the development of gender identity is the role of the mother as the primary caregiver Stockard, Eventually, however, children need to develop a sense of themselves as separate, as individual identities. For girls, the process is easier because by identifying with the mother she has already learned how to be female.
In the process of separation, boys often learn to devalue feminin-ity as well.The Socialization is one of the most popular assignments among students' documents. If you are stuck with writing or missing ideas, scroll down and find inspiration in the best samples.
Many believe that gender and sex are the same thing, but gender is a role we play in and sex is what we are born with. Each individual is born with a sex but has given a gender by society. Clothing plays a significant part in gender socialization and the way we present brigid socializationessay draft1. Uploaded by. api gender stereotypes are being broken everywhere, with female leaders on the rise and men all over social media wearing makeup, the gender identity category stereotype is crumbling. Society is a powerful thing, telling us who and who not to be. Within every society, gender is a socially constructed term, and the development of gender roles often begins as early as infancy. The results from both experiments show that the differences in the response to the baby's gender seem to be based on gender-role stereotypes and that gender-role socialization begins at birth. /5(8).
Socialization is quite a rare and popular topic for writing an essay, but it certainly is in our database. Oct 08, · Gender socialization is the process where people take on notions of gender roles, gender ideas and gender behaviours.
At an early age, boys and girls are told how to behave and act according to societal norms of gender behaviours and roles.
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Search Term Papers, College Essay Examples and Free Essays on Essayscom - full papers database. sex and socioeconomic status. Gender differences relate to how males and females tend to communicate.
Through research, it has been found that. socializationessay. Gender Mainstreaming in ADB Infrastructure Operations: What Really Works The Social Meanings of Gender”, written by Aaron Devor is an underlying issue that we have had for years: Gender equality.
wished to live according to the gender role of .