Soil is one of the most important natural resources of man.
Introduction The term Sahel an Arabic word for shore is used to refer to the semi-arid zone to the south of Sahara desert. Climatologically, the Sahel is characterized by frequent droughts - low, poorly distributed and highly variable monthly and seasonal unpredictable rainfall.
Arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid zones are characterized by, low and erratic rainfall that does not exceed mm per annum, periodic droughts, and different combinations of vegetational cover and soils.
Regarding livelihoods systems, generally speaking, light pastoral use is possible in arid areas whilst rain-fed agriculture is not usually possible.
In semi-arid areas agricultural harvests are likely to be irregular, although grazing is satisfactory[3,4]. The dry sub-humid areas receive higher amounts of rainfall than the other categories of drylands which can reach more than mm annually.
Drylands are characterized by high maximum temperatures and large temperature differences between day and night.
Other climatic characteristics include strong winds, and low humidity. These are reflected in an increased vapour pressure deficit with implications for water use efficiency, transpiration, and evaporation. Drylands are frequently subjected to drought which is the main limiting factor on biomass production and crop yields.
Human induced factors such as overcultivation, overgrazing and other forms of inappropriate land use, when practiced under the conditions prevailing in the drylands, may result in significant degradation of vegetation and, soil leaching and in many cases, in desertification.
Against this backdrop, this study was conducted to explore the impacts of desertification, degradation and drought on both the natural resources and man's livelihood in the Sudan. Data for this study was derived from both primary data observation and secondary data or a review of relevant literature, and a compilation of other available information on drought trends as reflected in rainfall trends in the study area, and on trends concerning the productivity of natural resources in the wider context of land degradation and desertification.
Information was also compiled from existing records on rainfall, forest land cover, forest stocking, rangelands and carrying capacity and on agricultural productivity and population trends.
Dryland Problems Many drylands show clear evidence of environmental degradation. Drought and unreliable and variable rains are a recurrent problem.
Even without climate change, the drylands face a daunting array of threats including population pressure, social changes such as the settlement of traditionally nomadic peoples, and exploitive agricultural and grazing practices that increase deforestation, soil erosion, salinization and water depletion.
Land degradation and desertification conistitute one of the most serious environmental problems facing the world today. Desertification threatens the drylands of Sub-Saharan Africa more than any other region in the world. Once the vegetational cover is removed, the fragile soils are exposed to winds and battering rains.
Early storms are often accompanied by strong winds. According to, blowing sand subjects seedlings to abrasion and often results in their being completely covered by sand, causing serious problems for crop establishment.
Desertification has been described as self-propagating and it feeds on itself as expanding areas become useless for crops or livestock, whilst the pressure on the islands of remaining fertile land that remain increases.Soil erosion generally is a function of slope attributes.
The rainfall, vegetation and land use are the most important factors in soil erosion in south-eastern Nigeria. Poor farming systems accelerate soil loss. To receive news and publication updates for Applied and Environmental Soil Science, enter your email address in the box below.
Soil Erosion Research Paper This sample Soil Erosion Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only.
Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. Abstract.
Desertification, a phenomenon referring to land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions as a result of climatic variations and human activities, is considered as one of the most severe environmental and socio-economic problems of recent times.
Coastal management is defence against flooding and erosion, and techniques that stop erosion to claim lands.. Coastal zones occupy less than 15% of the Earth's land area, while they host more than 45% of the world population.
Nearly billion people live within km of a shoreline and m of sea level, with an average density 3 times higher than the global average for population.
Research on Soil Erosion Full Article Figures & data Citations Soil erosion in the form of gullies is very common in south-eastern Nigeria. Igwe does not blame the Nigerian Government for these consequences, but he makes recommendations.
This book does not highlight the man-made degradation of land by erosive practices, but researchers in.