Growth mindset and fixed mindset How self beliefs affect motivation and thus achievement. What we believe about ourselves can greatly influence our ability to get what we want out of life.
S-1 Thinking Independently Principle: Critical thinking is independent thinking, thinking for oneself.
Many of our beliefs are acquired at an early age, when we have a strong tendency to form beliefs for irrational reasons because we want to believe, because we are praised or rewarded for believing. Critical thinkers use critical skills and insights to reveal and reject beliefs that are irrational.
In forming new beliefs, critical thinkers do not passively accept the beliefs of others; rather, they try to figure things out for themselves, reject unjustified authorities, and recognize the contributions of genuine authorities.
They thoughtfully form principles of thought and action; they do not mindlessly accept those presented to them. Nor are they unduly influenced by the language of another. If they find that a set of categories or distinctions is more appropriate than that used by another, they will use it.
Recognizing that categories serve human purposes, they use those categories which best serve their purpose at the time. They are not limited by accepted ways of doing things. They evaluate both goals and how to achieve them.
They do not accept as true, or reject as false, beliefs they do not understand. They are not easily manipulated. Independent thinkers strive to incorporate all known relevant knowledge and insight into their thought and behavior. They strive to determine for themselves when information is relevant, when to apply a concept, or when to make use of a skill.
Egocentricity means confusing what we see and think with reality. When under the influence of egocentricity, we think that the way we see things is exactly the way things are.
Egocentricity manifests itself as an inability or unwillingness to consider others' points of view, a refusal to accept ideas or facts which would prevent us from getting what we want or think we want. The egocentric individual is more concerned with the appearance of truth, fairness, and fairmindedness, than with actually being correct, fair, or fairminded.
Egocentricity is the opposite of critical thought. It is common in adults as well as in children. As people are socialized, egocentricity partly evolves into sociocentricity. Egocentric tendencies extend to their groups.
The individual goes from "I am right! One can see this in both children and adults: My daddy is better than your daddy! My school religion, country, race, etc.
Uncritical thinkers often confuse loyalty with always supporting and agreeing, even when the other person or the group is wrong.
If egocentricity and sociocentricity are the disease, self-awareness is the cure. We need to become aware of our own tendency to confuse our view with "The Truth". People can often recognize when someone else is egocentric. Most of us can identify the sociocentricity of members of opposing groups.
Yet when we ourselves are thinking egocentrically or sociocentrically, it seems right to us at least at the time. Our belief in our own rightness is easier to maintain because we ignore the faults in our thinking.Theories of forgetting: Cue-dependent forgetting or retrieval failure states that a memory is sometimes temporarily forgotten purely because it cannot easily be retrieved, but .
Theory that there is a strong desire to forget certain things because the memory is too traumatic, disturbing, anxiety-provoking or upsetting Types of motivated forgetting Repression. Do you believe that people really went to the Moon?
This is one of many events surrounded by conspiracy theories. Alice and Rob discuss if these theories are harmless and why some people are. Pablo Escobar was gunned down 24 years ago — here are 3 theories about who took the Medellin kingpin's life. Feb 02, · In the years since, Dr.
Tononi and Dr. Cirelli, along with other researchers, have found a great deal of indirect evidence to support the so-called synaptic homeostasis hypothesis.
Occasionally, crazy fan theories make a sobering amount of sense, sometimes more so than the actual games they're derived from.